History of China in Brief

History of China in Brief – 2024 Guide

The history of China is important to understand the past with a brief summary to travellers. So let’s discover its history together in brief in our summary, better understanding the country during your trip to China!landscapes, as well as offering incredible archaeologicalsites and important culture. Today, China is one of the world’s richest countries in People’s Republic of China, reaching the communism and to Silk Road. Between periods of decadence and splendor, on the route of theCelestial Empire of the country who created the vast unification, arriving at the2nd century BC in history. From the first dynasties in thecivilizations oldest of Chinese history and of a fascinating land, as well as one of the present and the

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The History of China

To understand the present it is important to know its past, thanks to a summaryYellow River with the first settlements along the 5,000 years ago, of Chinese history in brief. The country’s roots date back to3000 BC. the first dynasties, cities and writing are born. Chinese history can be divided into ancient, Imperial, republican and communist, which reaches up to today. The Imperial period, which ended in 1911, with the last emperor: Pu Yi, popular thanks to the film in 1949.People’s Republic of China , a period of struggles with Japan and civil wars, arriving at the republic. From the 20th century it became a Beijing of Forbidden City, set in the The Last Emperor

Its past, between dynasties and emperors, also saw the foundation of many capitals, from the province of Henan, the cradle of civilization in China, up to Xi’An, where we can admire the Terracotta Army, to Nanjing and then Beijing. Since the proclamation of the republic by Mao Zedong at the Tiananmen Gate in the capital, China has established itself as a global power economic. From the Maoist period, laying the foundations for a new government, opening up to the West. Today, China is a country with strong social and economic development, always living its culture following traditional Confucian values for a harmonious society. A land rich in historical wonders, which created the foundations of human civilization. So let’s look at the history of China in summary, to understand it in brief.

The phases of Chinese history

Period Epochs Historical
Prehistoric age 500,000 years ago – 2070 BC
Ancient history 2100 a.C. – 256 a.C.
Dinastia Qin 221 – 206 a.C.
Han Dynasty 206 a.C. – 220 d.C.
Three Kingdoms 220 – 265
Deep Dynasty 265 – 420
Northern and Southern dynasties 420 – 589
Sui Dynasty 581 – 618
Tang Dynasty 618 – 907
Dinastia Liao 907 – 1125
Song Dynasty 960 – 1279
Dinastia Yuan 1271 – 1368
Dinastia Ming 1368 – 1644
Dinastia Qing 1644 – 1911
Republic of China 1912 – 1949
People’s Republic of China 1949 – …

Chinese prehistory

Chinese history begins in the Lower Paleolithic. In fact, the territory was already inhabited over a million years ago, thanks to discoveries in the areas of Xiaochangliang, Xihoudu and Shanxi. The first houses were found near Lantian and Yuanmou. Among the most important finds of the period are the fossils of thePeking Man, dated to 700,000 years ago. The Liuzhou cave (Guangxi province), and in the Zhoukoudian cave, present fossil remains from the Upper Paleolithic. The Neolithic period during China’s history, in short, begins 14,000 years ago.

From this period we have traces of the Peiligang culture, in the provinces of Henan and Xinzheng. The center of the Yangshao culture (5000 – 3000 BC) was the valley of the Yellow River, among the most important settlements are those in Xi’an and Banpo. Many rock writings, inscriptions of elements and scenes of life, have been found in Ningxia: among the oldest characters in Chinese history. During the Longshan culture, developed in the middle and lower Yellow River (3000 – 2000 BC), the first fortified cities, such as the one in the site of Taosi. Here, during our summary of the history of China, the cultivation of the silkworm also began.

Reconstruction of Peking Man's remains - The history of China in brief
© wikimedia.org – Reconstruction of Peking Man remains, Paleozoological Museum of China

The Legendary Dynasties

The history of ancient China is complicated to date due to the lack of writings. As in other cases, reality often joins legends, defining the birth of a people. At the sites of Sanxingdui and Erlitou there are finds from the Chinese Bronze Age. In the Memoirs of a Historian, by Sima Qian, from the 2nd century BC. we speak of the three augusts and the five emperors. Semi-legendary kings and paragons of morality, such as theYellow Emperor Huang Di. Hereditary government positions, at this time in the summary of China’s history, began only during the Shang

Statue Creature Mythology Ningsia - China History in Brief
Statue of mythological creature, in Ningsia

The Xia Dynasty

During this summary of China’s history in brief, from 2070 to 1600 BC we see the birth of the Xia dynasty. In the same period, state forms of a stratified societywere born, including art, craftsmanship, technology and agriculture. The dynasty’s rule extended along the Yellow River, from Hebei to Henan, and from Shandong to Shanxi. The first of 17 rulers in 14 generations was Yu, remembered for his water works. The last one, Je, famous for corruption, was dethroned by Shang Tang.

Thus began the Shang dynasty. Between reality and myth, due to oral tradition, the historicity of the dynasty is questioned. Only in the 1950s in Erlitou, in Henan, did they find important finds and imposing buildings. The society was hierarchized, as it was possible to identify from the burials and in the houses, with a predominantly agricultural economy.

Ancient Chinese history

Dinastia Shang/Yin e Zhou

The second dynasty, when summarizing the history of China in brief, was the Shang. Furthermore, also the first one with certain historical information. His dominion extended over the north of theYellow River Valley, after the legendary Xia dynasty. Founded by the rebel commander Shang Tang, the economy was based on breeding, hunting and agriculture. Furthermore, writing, pottery and bronze working developed. According to historian Sima Qian, the capitals were six, arriving in dynasty began.Zhou, the Battle of Muye, with royal succession and mainly ritual functions. Following the theocratic. Thus began its golden period and took the name of the Yin dynasty. The government was 1350 BC. to Yin Xu

From 2nd millennium BC during Chinese history, after the defeat of the Shang in 1046 and These philosophies, even today, are strongly rooted in Chinese culture. Confucianism and Taoism, founders of ConfuciusLaozi was shaped, with . Thus he legitimized his exploits and rose to power, a concept also used by subsequent dynasties. In this period, Chinese philosophydivine mandate begins the Zhou dynasty, until 256 BC, invoking the Wu, the king BC.

Yin Ruins - China History - China History
© meteoweb.eu – The Ruins of Yin

Spring and autumn time

From 770 to 454 BC the Spring and Autumn period begins during the history of China in our brief summary. Its poetic name is due to the chronicles of the Annals of Confucius, which tell the story of the state of Lu Hundred Schools of Thought, had the power, but they served the dynasty. It was a flourishing period in Chinese history, on a philosophical and political level, seeing the birth of the princess, that is, their wangin perpetual struggle. The 7 main states , starting their second dynasty. From this period were born Luoyang. The Zhou moved east to Quanrong, leading to the invasion of peoples coming from the north-west, such as the barbarians of internal wars for hegemony begin Zhou. This period begins when the army leaders

Grotte di Longmen
Grotte di Longmen, a Luoyang

The Warring Kingdoms 

From 475 to 221 BC the period of Zhan Guo. To obtain it, there were violent discounts, but also deception, murder and diplomacy. The unification of the kingdoms came with the accession of Ying Zheng to the throne in 247 BC. The king took the name of Qin Shihuangdi, a mythical and ancient ruler. In this period of Chinese history, the manufacturing of weapons with iron developed, while its influence reached today’s Sichuan and Zhejiang.

The history of Imperial China

Thanks to Ying Zheng’s skills, he managed to defeat the other kingdoms, thus achieving unification during the summary of China in brief. He thus became Qin Shi Huang Di, the first emperor, starting the dynasty Qin, using a term that previously indicated only the great emperors during antiquity. Thus, the king placed himself on their level, legitimizing himself. He began a series of reforms , advised by Li Si , he first his minister. Once the aristocracy was ousted, the nobles moved to Xianyang, the territories divided into districts and governorates in turn. Furthermore, he unified measurements, coins and writing, helping communication between peoples and built approximately 6000 km of roads.

Shaanxi Qianling Museum - Storia Cinese
© periodicodaily.com – Shaanxi Qianling Museum, a Qian

La dinastia Qin

Throughout the story, Shi Huang Di strengthened the defenses in the north, starting construction of the Great Wall of China to defend against the Hsiungnu barbarians. The work, created by joining various parts of already existing walls, created one of the most incredible structures in human history, not just Chinese history. Furthermore, Shi Huang Diburned all ancient texts, except the scientific ones, erasing the memory of an ancient civilization. In addition to carrying out great feats and works, the factors that led to the fall of the Qin dynasty were its ruthlessness and politics, such as collective responsibility introduced. The farmers were forced to leave the fields to build the Wall and other structures.

Many small entities were in fact upended by the unification. In 210 BC, after the death of the first emperor, the dynasty did not continue due to power struggles, Li Si’s plots and the suicide of heir to the throne. Zhao Gao, a court eunuch, then had the prime minister killed. His second son, Er Huang Di, succeeded to the throne, but was killed shortly after. The nephew, Ziying, did not dare to take power. In 209 BC revolts began throughout the Empire, with the rebels led by Xiang Yu who, in 206 BC. he killed Emperor Zi Ying, taking the capital and moving it to Chang’an, then proclaiming himself emperor.Han dynasty and starting the

Great Wall - Chinese History
The Great Wall of China

The Han Dynasty

During Chinese history, from 206 to 220 AD. we see the Han dynasty, a name subsequently taken also by the main Chinese population. Founded by the Lius, it reigned for four centuries, bringing its influence to Korea, Mongolia, Central Asia and Vietnam. At this moment in Eastern history, Confucianism was the official philosophy, trade and agriculture developed, and the population grew. The capital is Chang’an, a large metropolis at the time. Onlyfrom 9 to 25 AD. the dynasty ends with the Xin dynasty, ending with the death of the ruler. In fact, the Han dynasty is divided into the Western Han dynasty, from 206 to 9 AD. with capital Chang’an.

The second, of the Eastern Han, until 220 AD. has Luoyang as its capital. This period saw the development of literature, art and science. perfecting the technique of paper. The Han army allows expansion up to the Tarim desert plain, where the ancient Silk Road passed, making it safe up to the borders with the ‘ Afghanistan today. They also invaded Korea and Vietnam, beginning the tributary system of the subjugated states of China. They also organized marriages, sending Chinese princesses to other kingdoms, especially with the nomads to the north.

Ancient Xian - History of China Summary
Ancient Changan, today Xi’an

The Chinese Middle Ages

During the medieval history of this country, we see the birth of the period of the three kingdoms. Historians identify it as the period between the rise of the Wei kingdom and the takeover of the Wu kingdom in 280. This moment begins in 184, after the uprising of the Yellow Turbans: the definitive decline of the Han dynasty following the peasant revolts. The Middle Ages during the history of this nation ends in 589, with the unification under the Sui and Buddhist fervor. The imperial idea continues until the arrival of the barbarians and the collapse of the empire.subsistence economy, continuous internal wars, anarchy. Like the European one, in this too we see

The 16 Kingdoms and the dynasties of the north and south

The Jin dynasty can be divided from 265 to 316, the western one which brings unification, and from 317 to 420 the eastern one, which ruled over the south. In 263 the kingdom of Wei conquered that of Shu, in 265 i Sima defeat the Wei, starting the Jin dynasty. In turn, they conquered the Wu kingdom, thus reuniting the ancient Han empire, although it did not last long. The threats from the nomads were many, leading to the division of the Jin kingdom into 16 distinct kingdoms. The north was in the hands of nomads, creating an exodus towards the south. The Jin kingdom was rebuilt at Jiankang, near modern-day Nanjing, ending in 420. From 304 to 439 there was a strong fragmentation and kingdoms ruled by non-Chinese.

The tuoba, who unified the north throughout history, began the Wei dynasty began after the fall of the last Jin ruler in 420: Chen, Song, Qi and Liang at the court of Jiankang.four dynastiesin 440. China was thus divided between north and south, where

Nanjing - Summary History of China
Nanjing

The Sui and Tang dynasties

With the fall of the Wei dynasty in 534, the north fell into chaos until the arrival of Yang Jian, who started the Sui dynasty. Among the various merits of this dynasty, there was that of being able to unify China, moving the focus of the empire to north. Sui Yangdi, the son, was inept, leading to decline. But he also built the Imperial Canal , joining a series of canals, connecting the Yangzi valley to Chāng’ān via the Yellow River. Subsequently, the canal was diverted and brought north, when the capital of the Yuan Dynasty became Bĕijīng; becoming one of the main communications routes until the 19th century.

After several disastrous battles in Korea, Yangdi became unpopular, facing many uprisings, until his assassination in 618. On this date begins the Dynasty Tang, a flourishing period in the history of China briefly in this summary. In this period, Chinese literature developed, an example of which was The three hundred T’ang poems , composed of over 48,000 compositions. The founder of the dynasty was Li Yuan, a general who took the capital by killing all the heirs of Sui Yangdi. The empire was divided with an administrative structure, the basis of the Chinese mode today. Heir Taizong was later celebrated as a virtuous ruler.

Dinastia Tang Base Xiangyang
Xiangyang, one of the bases of the Tang Dynasty

The first Empress

The concubine Wu, after the death of the sovereign, became increasingly powerful, arriving in 690, Xuanzong, was forced to abdicate for 705, however, did not appreciate his Buddhist faith. Thus, in Confucians. The scholars. Wu also brought changes at the bureaucratic level, replacing aristocratic officials with European merchants, major cities and ports were frequented by from the 7th to the 8th century, a strategic position for trade. During Chinese history, Luòyáng. The empress then moved the capital to Mediterranean and Persia also intensified its trade towards India, Silk Road, up to the Great Wall and into Central Asia. The maximum expansion . Ruthless and beautiful, she led the empire to empress during the history of this country to be only woman. TheZhoudynasty to found the

The capital was moved Cháng’ān and power in the army entrusted to smaller ethnic groups on the borders. In this way, he thought he would avoid coups, but he was wrong. It was the Turkish-Sogdian general An Lushan in the north who started the revolt. Having reached the capital, the battles continued for eight years, causing not the fall of the Tang dynasty, but serious repercussions on ‘aristocracy with the rise of the class of mercenaries. Depending on the south, it closed with the west and central Asia, bringing back Confucianism and banning Buddhism until 84. The Tibetans defeated the empire, to the south they began expansionist aims towards Sichuan and the taxes weighed more and more, adding to the natural disasters. In 907, due to revolts, the capital of Tang fell.

Shaanxi Mausoleum Wu Zetian Tomb - - History of the Chinese summarized
Il Mausoleo a Shaanxi, Tomba di Wu Zetian

The Song Dynasty

With the collapse of the Tang kingdom, the Song dynasty began in 960, a small empire between the Liao and Xixia kingdoms. In 1126 Kāifēng, the Song capital, was taken by the jurchen, first allies. The capital was then moved to Hángzhōu, beginning the Southern Song period. Meanwhile, the Jurchen founded the Jin kingdom with its capital near Beijing, they also demanded payments in various taxes.

The Song dynasty is, however, remembered as a period of mathematical, archaeological and medical advances. Furthermore, calligraphy and art flourished, as did philosophy and rice cultivation in the 8th century. The printing and gunpowder industries were also born, intensifying trade with Japan and south-east Asia. . Nightlife was born in Hángzhōu, after the curfew was lifted, becoming a city known – even today – for its splendor. The elite of bureaucrats emerged, a class at the peak until the 19th century.

Pagoda on the Lake in Hangzhou
Pagoda on the lake in Hangzhou

The arrival of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Khanate

While the Song dynasty and its literati deepened their moral codes, the figure of emerged from Mongolia Genghis Khan. During his rise to power, which began by avenging his father’s death, he became chief of the tribe in 1206. In 1213 he managed to open a breach in the Great Wall and two years later conquered what is now Beijing. He defeated the Xixia kingdom, the Jin dynasty in the north and began the march towards Russia, founding theMongol empire. In its heyday, its borders reached as far as Ukraine, Korea, Vietnam and Persia. In 1234 the Jin kingdom finally fell and in 1279 the Song. Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis, founded the Yuan dynasty, dominating the largest Chinese empire in history. A multi-ethnic kingdom, which welcomed missionaries and merchants from Europe, such as Marco Polo.

The capital was Khanbalig, in present-day Běijīng, although only the . The Mongolian people were at the top of administration and society, excelling in the art of war, but not in politics. In the 14th century, after about a century, the revolts began. Secret societies and sects were born everywhere, such as the religious one of the Red Turbans. Zhu Yuanzhang, in 1367, took command of the revolt, founding the Ming dynasty the following year in the summary of China’s history in brief.

Gegis Khan Mausoleum Mongolia Internal Ordos
Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, in Inner Mongolia in Ordos

The Ming Dynasty

Yuanzhang, during the summary of Chinese history, was a great ruthless leader, remembered as a despot to bring the country back to Yuan splendor. The capital moved to Nánjīng, bringing the court back to Běijīng in the 15th century. Yongle was emperor from 1403 to 1424, starting the construction of the led by the eunuch Zheng He. They reached Aden and established two embassies in Egypt.1405. The Ming emperors were not interested in Central Asia, but more in Southeast Asia, starting an overseas expansionist policy, with seven massive expeditions in Forbidden City

The Mongols in 1439 invaded the empire, keeping the emperor captive for a year. This led subsequent rulers to strengthen the borders, extending the Great Wall in the 16th century, reaching 1000 km. But the coasts still remained undefended and, in the 16th century, there were many pirate attacks. Many Europeans arrived and, in 1557, the Portuguese established bases in Macau. missionaries also arrived, including Matteo Ricci and the Jesuits entered the court , obtaining admiration. Thanks to contacts with the New World, the importation of new ingredients and cultures, trade became the main economic activity.

Throne Room Forbidden City
The throne room in the Forbidden City

The Ming decline

Undermined by the power of eunuchs, including Wei Zhongxian, who promoted the cult over his person , the Ming kingdom without a strong leader crumbled. In Manchuria the military state was strengthened jurchen, while drought and floods brought to starve the northern areas, increasing rebellions. The Manchus gained more and more power, starting the first invasion, but not overcoming the Wall. Thanks to a general MIng, they arrived at Běijīng and the capital in Běijīng, Li Zicheng, who took the throne in just one day and was then driven out by the Chinese. This did not happen for the Manchus, but at the hands of a1644

In 1851 the Celestial Kingdom of Great Peace was founded of Hong Xiuquan, who started the civil revolt in the Qing empire. The civil war was suppressed in 1864, with British help, thus beginning the opium wars, the first between 1839 and 1842 and from 1856 to 1860. The Chinese Qing kingdom opposed the United Kingdom and the British India Company controlled the commercial interests. China increased the bans on opium, increasing conflicts, but was defeated in both wars, tolerating the opium trade with the signing of various trade treaties. Chinese pride was worn, increasing feelings xenophobes and nationalists. To counter colonialism, popular organizations were born, united in Kung fu schools. This led to the Boxer Rebellion in 1899.

Model Destruction of Opium Hong Kong Museum
Opium War model, Hong Kong Science Museum

La Dinastia Qing

Also known as Manchu-Qing, the Quing dynasty was born in Manchuria, then expanding into China and various territories in Inner Asia. In 1644 they conquered Beijing, unifying for 40 years the country during the summary history of China in brief, ruling until 1912, changing in < /span>, they remained under various lordships and, later, in the hands of Japan.Mongolia and Taiwan, republican leader, leading to the birth of modern China. The Remnants of the Qing Empire, including Sun Yat-sen, led by Xinhairevolutionin the history of this country, which fell after the last dynasty however the name in the Later Jin dynasty, not to be confused with the dynasty of the same name which reigned until 946. This was the1616

The Great Qing was the largest empire in the history of this country, surpassing the Tang and becoming the fifth largest ever and In the 20th century, it was the most populous empire in the world. After the death of Emperor Guangxu in 1908, the successor was two-year-old son Zaifeng, who created in 1911 the in the summary.thousand-year history of imperial China. Concluding the Republic of China and the birth of theend of the Celestial Empire revolution began which ended with the Xinhai. This brought much criticism among senior officials. The same year the Cabinet of the imperial family

Last Emperor Pu Yi and Wife
© vanillamagazine.it – The last emperor, Pu Yi, and Empress Wan Rong

The Republic of China

With the deposition of Emperor Pu Yi in 1912, the Republic of China is born. This political entity, born following the revolutionary success, included only 80% of the territory of the Great Qing. The republic was proclaimed on 1 January 1912, with Sun Yat-sen as provisional president. To avoid conflicts, he soon gave up for a northern general, Yuan Shikai, who had deposed the emperor. Once the monarchy fell, Xinjiang and Tibet declared theTibet, being in the crown and losing any connection with China .Mongolia, like autonomy

In 1912 the nationalist Kuomintang party was founded . Shikai dissolved it and, in 1915, centralized power within himself, establishing an empire. In 1916 he was defeated by the republicans, dying and leaving China to anarchy under the warlords. Also in 1915, the then Japanese Empire presented to China, with him as first secretary was born Chinese Communist Party Shanghai in 1921 movement, believing in cultural rebirth and democracy. In New Culture, inspired by this event, he founded the Chen Duxiu, imposing compensation.21 requests

Hongshan Mountain Xinjiang
View from Ürümqi Hill, Xinjiang

The Red bases

The Guomindang was reorganized as a mass party following the Soviet model, starting the era of the red bases from 1927 to 1934. Thus the foundations of the People’s Republic of China were created during the history of the country. The intentions according to which the liberated areas were reorganized included land distribution, equal rights between the sexes, repression of usury, moral corruption and brigandage. In this context, the figure of Mao Zedong rose who, in 1931, led to the foundation of the Chinese Soviet Republic

The Chinese Communist Party tried to develop, in rural revolutionary bases under its control, its own judicial and government system. Thanks to the predominant figure of Mao Zedong, at the end of 1931, the foundation of the Soviet Chinese Republic dictatorship of the proletariat; the communist army. The principle followed was the Chinese Red Army. He distributed power to the peasant and working class and to the

The Nanjing Decade and the Sino-Japanese Wars

In 1925 Sun Yat-sen dies, leading to the rise of general Chiang Kai-shek . He marched north, unifying China and eliminating the warlords, removing the communist elements from the army initially, forcing the communists to underground in 1927 and starting a civil war. anti-Japanese front he was arrested and forced to speak together with the communists to form the1936 in Xi’anto avoid Chiang’s troops. In Long March , starting theChinese Soviet Republic in the south. Mao Zedong and the communists, meanwhile, founded the and until Sino-Japanese War, with the ManchuriaShanghai leads to the invasion of Japan. The aggression of from 1927 to 1937. Thus began the Nanjing Decade, 1950 finished in

At the end of the Long March, a second phase of experimentation began. With theSecond World Warand the defeat of the Axis, China obtained aseat at the UN, the People’s Republic of China was founded by the Communist Party.1949October 1. Onisland of Formosa. Chiang Kai-shek in fact escaped with his troops in 1949 to the , settling the communist forces in the north, while the nationalist forces retreated in the south the civil war began again, the institutions of the administration and49 to 1946. In the post-war period, from

Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Building
Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Building in Taipei, Taiwan

The People’s Republic of China 

In 1949, following the victory of Mao about Chiang Kai-shek and the nationalists during the civil war during the history of China summarized in brief, the People’s Republic of China was born, still today theChinese administrative political entity. This event was announced in Beijing from the Tiananmen monument. With the outbreak of the Korean War, Mao sent troops to support of North Korea, supporting communism against the Western bloc with the Soviet.

He began a agrarian reform, claiming many victims among the landowners, completing it in 1953 a> began. Many people were killed or persecuted.Sufan Movement and the Campaign for the Suppression of Counter-Revolutionaries is sadly remembered for the numerous suicides among businessmen. The between 1951 and 52. Industrial and capitalist corruption spread, nationalizing companies. The periodstate property and socialistcollectivism, imposing heavy industry. Traditional Chinese agriculture was left behind, favoring

Mao Zedong’s vision

In 1956 Mao Zedong set out his new socialist vision, starting the Hundred Flowers campaign. A movement dedicated to intellectuals, encouraged to debate for theevolution of the socialist state. However, they soon began to criticize the government, starting the Campaign against the right. Numerous anti-right intellectuals were sent to forced labor and China became a one-party state with the Communist Party. In 1958 a detachment from the vision of the Soviet Union began for Chinese history, starting the collectivization of land and increasing industrial production.

This policy, however, was a failure, creating the great Chinese famine, the largest in history. In 1958, following theXunhua incident, explosions occurred in Qinghai popular revolts against the regime, leading to the massacre of hundreds of people, after the revolt of , which were seen by Mao with an attempt to destroy socialism.open the market brought reforms to Liu and Deng Mao’s policies were again criticized, he thus left the role to Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, going into “retirement”. 1962 , which killed nearly 90,000 people, fled to India in exile, where he built a new government. In Lhasa1959in fourteenth Dalai Lama . The

Statua Mao a Chengdu
Statua di Mao Zedong, a Chengdu

The cultural revolution

In 1970 nuclear missiles, the first atomic bomb, the hydrogen and a satellite. During the 1960s, however, a rradicalization of the clashes between right and left began, between Mao Tse-tung and Lin Biao. In 1961 a socialist education movement was created, with little consensus if not in the cultural field. In 1966 the red terror begins, establishing a group for the cultural revolution , started by Chen Boda who convinced students to undergo political indoctrination, thus creating episodes of fanaticism in ShanghaiShanghai Mao Tse-tung died.1976 . In Mongolia were killed in 1971 . Lin Biao and some of his collaborators, in

The Chinese cultural revolution remains a sad period in its history, involving numerous deaths, massacres, persecutions, conflicts and torture.

Deng’s Transition

Hua Guofeng, after Mao’s death, became leader of China in 1976. He planned the arrest of the gang of four and ended the cultural revolution. Hua, however, continued Maoist policies and, in 1977, reinstated many officials, including Deng Xiaoping, who succeeded him the same year. He introduced the Boluan Fanzheng, trying to eliminate the Maoist ideology, reinstating the college entrance exam, canceled during the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, during the summary history of China, the Resolution of the Cultural Revolution was formally declared a and admitting liability. In the 1970s and 1980s national security worsened, leading Deng to begin anti-crime campaigns.

In 1978, reform and opening-up began, a new era in Chinese history, building on the Four cardinal principles. In Singapore an economic superpower was created, emulating policies of economic growth and sending many Chinese officials here to study their methods. In the 80s there were numerous economic reforms, opening up to foreign investments , abolishing popular communes. Shenzhen became the new Silicon Valley of China and powerful companies were born, such as ZTE and Huawei. In 1986 the Program 863 was also approved, which includes 9 school years mandatory. Furthermore, to counter the demographic crisis, the One Child policy was controversially implemented.

Merlion Park Singapore
Merlion Park, a Singapore

The third generation and Jiang Zemin

In 1989 the Tiananmen Square massacre occurred. Deng passed power to the third generation of leaders, headed by Jiang Zemin. In 1992 Deng began the famous Southern tour, in southern China; a fundamental point in Chinese history. In fact, he managed to save China’s economy and the stock exchange, preserving society. Li Peng, a conservative, became the first premier until . in of Organization for Cooperation the 2001. In 1999Macao returned to China in the same year and Hong Kong and died in 1997. 1992 retired from political life in Deng Xiaoping, which became a serious problem. environmental pollution, following market reforms, there was strong growth, including in electricity consumption, thus also increasing the90s, replaced by the reformist Rongji. In the 1998

The fourth generation

Jiang Zemin, in the Chinese Communist Party, was succeeded by Hu Jintao in 2002 , becoming the following year president of the People’s Republic. The economy during this period of China’s history, in our brief summary, grew rapidly, surpassing Japan as Second in the world economy. There were many scientific advances and discoveries, especially thanks to the 863 Program, arriving at space successes in 2003. China was the third country in the world to send an astronaut into space. In 2012 Mo Yan was the first Chinese to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. In Beijing in 2008 the Olympics and, in 2010, in Shanghai, influencing online opinions in favor of the government.50 Cent Party. Hu Jintao and the Party created the World Expo the

Expo Shanghai Pavilion
The Shanghai Expo Pavilion

The fifth generation and Xi Jinping

In 2012, during the most recent Chinese history, Xi Jinping became secretary general and in 2013 president. After taking office, he and his allies began anti-corruption campaigns against their rivals. In 2018 he eliminated some amendments, including the term limit, triggering fears that he could rule for life. During this period, many major projects were completed and begun, including the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. Xi Jinping consolidated his national power, abandoning diplomacy to be seen as a global strongman and launching a New Silk Road.

China Today

Even today, Xi Jinping is the leader of China, transforming Chinese passivity into a strategy of claiming responsibility for border-related disputes, such as maximum global economic powers, China and the United States have been the two 2018. Furthermore, since Taiwansecond most populous state in the world and power rests with the Chinese Communist Party. Its capital and government seat is Beijing, there are 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities, as well as two administrative regions: Macao and Hong Kong.

Thanks to its thousand-year history, which has influenced that of the whole world in the past and today, China is now a popular destination for travelers for its numerous historical beauties, its culture and the infinite diversified landscapes present in the vast territory. In this way, a trip to China is ideal for all types of travellers. Among architectural treasures, immense works of human ingenuity, monuments and archaeological sites of enormous historical value. But also a culture with infinite facets, which is reflected in its tasty cuisine, among the most popular in the world. China looks forward to welcoming you on a wonderful journey to a beautiful and immense country.

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